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Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Download Article PDF. Share this article. Article information. Author e-mails. Pioro et al Crossref Google Scholar. Finally off-load refueling with a vertical channel was adopted, using a unique re-entrant channel design [ 7 ], and patents were issued for some of the alternate concepts. Autoclave experiments showed how quickly common clad and channel materials corroded and or oxidized [ 21 ].

So special alloys were examined, including stainless steel variants, coatings, and axial segmentation. Additionally, the in-core components, entire channel, and fuel could all be easily replaced when and if needed. Thorium fuel cycles were examined and shown to be promising, but refueling was now off-load, fuel cycles longer, and burn up higher.

Meanwhile the research capability expanded, with materials testing leading the way, followed by many heat transfer rigs and chemistry studies in the presence of radiation. Everything depended on rapid construction techniques and a modular or factory built unit as far as possible.

Handbook of Generation IV Nuclear Reactors

F igure 4. The simulated cash flow for multiple module construction [ 22 ]. Many flow path, channel, and fuel bundle options were considered, plus studies were conducted on hydrogen production using electrolysis and thermo-chemical cycles with advanced catalysts [ 23 ]. The program encouraged and funded the involvement of multiple Canadian Universities, the development of many new campus-based facilities, and contributions from talented post-graduates [ 9 ].

The fuel cycle also offered advances in the use of thorium cycles for ensuring global sustainability considerations were addressed. The design for the core already included a negative void and power coefficient of reactivity by choice of lattice pitch, fuel enrichment, and bundle design. With the reference design moving forward, a further key development was the accident at Fukushima.

He also gave interviews with local media In Vancouver, where iodine pills stocks had been exhausted by panic buying. The scale of damage and fear due to the combination of tsunami, earthquake, and nuclear meltdowns were unprecedented, exceeding the reaction from the Chernobyl reactor fire. It became clear that core melt and or hydrogen-induced explosions were not publically or socially acceptable, despite present licensing approaches.

The ability is to reject heat to the moderator and to ultimate heat sinks the atmosphere after total loss of primary water and power, even without any additional cooling water being needed or added. This does require limiting channel powers, ensuring an optimized insulator, and a sub-divided or annular bundle design consistent with the physics advantages , and extensive thinking about the layout and heat rejection paths. All of this is described further in this special edition [ 26 ]. Basically, the simple aim is for a few percent and lower decay heat to be removed indefinitely without requiring any system cooling and no on-site or off-site actions or added power or cooling equipment.

One of the key achievements over the last 15 or so years has been extensive documentation in numerous technical papers and progress reports, many in international meetings, conferences, and journal articles, some in internal updates. This has not only forced but also enabled debate, discussion, and transparency on what has been solved and what remains to be done.

This combination of absolute safety and competitive economics is something no other GenIV system can hope to achieve in the near future. All indications are that the focus in Canada for the next years will be on life-extensions for existing CANDU units, and no new builds are envisaged. Corrosion, chemistry, and activity transport issues have been addressed, and core optimization is now proceeding.

The major technical issues are demonstrating safety and channel performance at full scale. What is now needed is a major test facility to confirm the details of performance and a prototype to demonstrate the principles and flesh out the details, which include test irradiation channels and establishing a licensing path for such a Generation IV system. The brief window of opportunity allows the development of the next generation of plants while there is still time.

The national challenge is real, as Canada has the opportunity to host a prototype with international participation. Without seizing this moment the challenge is that the technology will indeed be transferred to other countries, which will assume the lead and the technical capability lost that was so carefully built.

Three major ideas were at the heart of SCWR by exploiting its high efficiency and the ability to be inherently safe and without core melt. Firstly, to enable the transition to a hydrogen economy, for transportation and fuel cell use, thus addressing directly the challenges of carbon emissions, climate change, or global warming. These pathways have been analyzed in the course of the Canadian SCWR program and are clearly feasible [ 28 , 29 ]. Secondly, to adopt a sustainable fuel cycle that enabled additional use of the finite resources, by adopting thorium-based cycles, recycling, and actinide burning [ 3 ], and near-breeding, all to provide an almost indefinite energy source consistent with non-proliferation needs [ 30 ].

This requires eventually establishing a production capability for manufacturing of not one-by-one as today but for hundreds of units. This also requires moving aggressively into international agreements on development, sharing intellectual property, and of course political consensus. These all need thinking about now, to define and execute a successful success path for the entire world. F igure 5. Multiple products are key to sustainable future technologies and competitive designs.


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In this paper Top of page 1. Introduction 2. Conceptual Design Options 4. Advancing Technology: The Major Challenges 8. Introduction In Canada, the supercritical water-cooled reactor SCWR of today owes its development to a continuous and challenging vision to achieve substantial improvements in nuclear power technology.

Conceptual Design Options The next steps in the early s were to scope out conceptual ideas for alternate system and reactor designs, including the channel, fuel bundle, physics optimization, fuel cycle, thermal performance, and plant size range. Safety Case Principles: Assured Cooling and No Core Melt The design for the core already included a negative void and power coefficient of reactivity by choice of lattice pitch, fuel enrichment, and bundle design. Present Status: Solving Challenges by Improving Safety and Advancing Technology One of the key achievements over the last 15 or so years has been extensive documentation in numerous technical papers and progress reports, many in international meetings, conferences, and journal articles, some in internal updates.

Comparison and concept progression. Advancing Technology: The Major Challenges The major technical issues are demonstrating safety and channel performance at full scale. Fundamentals of Materials for Energy and Environmental Sustainability. David S. Human Factors and Behavioural Safety.

Handbook of Generation IV Nuclear Reactors

Jeremy Stranks. Wai Onn Hong. Robert Pemberton. Fast Reactor System Design. Naoto Kasahara. Daniel T. Fan Li. Barry Strauch. Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy. Calin Zamfirescu. Small Modular Reactors.

Daniel T Ingersoll. Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion. Jean Louis Bobin. Xac Hammer. Hydrogen and Fuel Cell. Nuclear Safety in Light Water Reactors. THz and Security Applications. Carlo Corsi. Michael Yastrebenetsky. The World Scientific Handbook of Energy. Gerard M Crawley. Nanodevices and Nanomaterials for Ecological Security. Yuri N. Pascal Yvon. Fukushima Accident. Michio Aoyama. Entransy in Phase-Change Systems. Junjie Gu. Molten Salt Reactors and Thorium Energy. Thomas James Dolan. Analytical Methods for Nonproliferation. Edward C. Kenneth L Nash.

Frank Princiotta.

1. Introduction

Esther Titilayo Akinlabi. Fundamentals of Radiation Materials Science. GARY S. Hong Jiang. The Handbook of Operator Fatigue. Gerald Matthews. Magnetic Fusion Energy.